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4 Ps of Creativity

Updated: Aug 14, 2021

In 1961, Mel Rhodes published An Analysis of Creativity, which has widely been cited by researchers when defining the concept of creativity. After collecting over forty definitions of creativity, he mapped out a concept of creativity, and suggested four different strands of creativity ,which Rhodes called them the "Four P's of Creativity". They are Person, Process, Press, and Product.

  • Person: Who is creative? Researchers have tried to identify the core characteristics of creative people. There are personality attributes that creative individuals share and those attributes can be nurtured when environments are conducted to creativity.

  • Process: What is creative process? How individuals create original ideas or solutions? Motivation, perception, thinking, learning, and communicating are related to creative process.

  • Press: What environments influences on creative behaviors? Many different Press aspects (positive or negative) can be examined in various settings including classroom environment and organizational setting.

  • Product: What are creative products? Rhodes refers to Products as tangible forms manifested from ideas such as novels, poems, art works, scholarly articles, paintings, inventions, or performance.

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